Before we jump into the example scripts, let us take a few minutes to look at what else is included in the Kaldi distribution. Go to the kaldi-1 directory and list it. There are a few files and subdirectories. The important subdirectories are "tools/", "src/", and "egs/" which we will look at in the next section. We will give an overview of "tools/" and "src/".
The directory "tools/' is where we install things that Kaldi depends on in various ways. Change directory to tools/ and list it. You will see various files and subdirectories, mostly things that have been installed by the make command. Look very quickly at the file INSTALL. This file gives instructions on how to install the tools.
The most important subdirectory is the one for OpenFst. cd to openfst/. This is a soft link to the actual directory which has a version number. List the openfst directory. If the installation succeeded, there will be a bin/ directory with the installed binaries, and a lib/ directory with the library (we require both of these). The most important code is in the directory include/fst/. If you ever want to understand Kaldi deeply you will need to understand OpenFst. For this, the best starting point is http://www.openfst.org/.
For now, just view the file include/fst/fst.h. This consists of some declarations of an abstract FST type. You can see that there are a lot of templates involved. If templates are not your thing, you will probably have trouble understanding this code.
Change directory to bin/, or add it to your path. We will be executing some simple example instructions from here.
Paste the following command into the shell:
# arc format: src dest ilabel olabel [weight] # final state format: state [weight] # lines may occur in any order except initial state must be first line # unspecified weights default to 0.0 (for the library-default Weight type) cat >text.fst <<EOF 0 1 a x .5 0 1 b y 1.5 1 2 c z 2.5 2 3.5 EOF
The following commands create the symbol tables; paste them into the shell too.
cat >isyms.txt <<EOF <eps> 0 a 1 b 2 c 3 EOF cat >osyms.txt <<EOF <eps> 0 x 1 y 2 z 3 EOF
Note: for the following steps to work, if you don't have the current directory on your path you may have to type:
Next create a binary-format FST:
fstcompile --isymbols=isyms.txt --osymbols=osyms.txt text.fst binary.fst
Let's execute an example command:
fstinvert binary.fst | fstcompose - binary.fst > binary2.fst
The resulting WFST, binary2.fst, should be similar to binary.fst but with twice the weights. You can print them both out to see:
fstprint --isymbols=isyms.txt --osymbols=osyms.txt binary.fst fstprint --isymbols=isyms.txt --osymbols=osyms.txt binary2.fst
This example was modified from a longer tutorial available at www.openfst.org . After you have done this, clean up by typing:
rm *.fst *.txt
Change directory back up to the top level (kaldi-1) and into src/. List the directory. You will see a few files and a large number of subdirectories. Look at the Makefile. At the top it sets the variable SUBDIRS. This is a list of the subdirectories containing code. Notice that some of them end in "bin". These are the ones that contain executables (the code and executables are in the same directory). The other directories contain internal code.
You can see that one of the targets in the Makefile is "test". Type "make test". This command goes into the various subdirectories and runs test programs in there. All the tests should succeed. If you are feeling lucky you can also type "make valgrind". This runs the same tests with a memory checker, and takes longer, but will find more errors. If this doesn't work, forget about it; it's not important for now. If it is taking too long, stop it with ctrl-c.
Change directory to base/. Look at the Makefile. Notice the line
This lines includes the file ../kaldi.mk verbatim whenever a Makefile in a subdirectory is invoked (just like a C #include directive). Look at the file ../kaldi.mk. It will contain some rules related to valgrind (for memory debugging), and then some system-specific configuration in the form of variables such as CXXFLAGS. See if there are any -O options (e.g. -O0). The flags -O0 and -DKALDI_PARANOID are disabled by default as they slow things down (you might want to enable them for better debugging). Look again at base/Makefile. The statement "all:" at the top tells Make that "all" is the top-level target (because there are targets in kaldi.mk and we don't want these to become the top-level target). Because the dependencies of "all" depend on variables defined later, we have another statement (the target is defined in default_rules.mk) in which we define what "all" depends on. Look for it. Several other targets are defined, starting with "clean". Look for them. To make "clean" you would type "make clean". The target .valgrind is not something you would invoke from the command line; you would type "make valgrind" (the target is defined in kaldi.mk). Invoke all of these targets, i.e. type "make clean" and the same for the others, and notice what commands are issued when you do this.
In the Makefile in the base/ directory: choose one of the binaries listed in TESTFILES, and run it. Then briefly view the corresponding .cc file. The math one is a good example (note: this excludes the majority of math functions in Kaldi, which are matrix-vector related functions, and are located in ../matrix/). Notice that there are a lot of assertions, with the macro KALDI_ASSERT. These test programs are designed to exit with error status if there is a problem (they are not supposed to rely on human inspection of the output).
Look at the header kaldi-math.h. You will see some elements of our coding practices. Notice that all our local #includes are relative to the src/ directory (so we #include base/kaldi-types.h even though we are already in the base/ directory). Notice that all macros we #define, except for standard ones that we are just making sure have their normal values, begin with KALDI_. This is a precaution to avoid future conflicts with other codebases (since #defines don't limit themselves to the kaldi namespace). Notice the style of the function names: LikeThis(). Our style is generally based on this one , to conform with OpenFst, but there are some differences.
To see other elements of the style, which will help you to understand Kaldi code, cd to ../util, and view text-utils.h. Notice that the inputs of these functions are always first, and are generally const references, while the outputs (or inputs that are modified) are always last, and are pointer arguments. Non-const references as function arguments are not allowed. You can read more about the Kaldi-specific elements of the coding style here later if you are interested. For now, just be aware that there is a coding style with quite specific rules.
Change directory to ../gmmbin and type
It prints out the usage, which should give you a generic idea of how Kaldi programs are called. Note that while there is a –config option that can be used to pass a configuration file, in general Kaldi is not as config-driven as HTK and these files are not widely used. You will see a –binary option. In general, Kaldi file formats come in both binary and test forms, and the –binary option controls how they are written. However, this only controls how single objects (e.g. acoustic models) are written. For whole collections of objects (e.g. collections of feature files), there is a different mechanism that we will come to later. Type
What do you see, and what does this tell you about what Kaldi does with logging-type output? The place that the usage message goes is the same place that all error and logging messages go, and there is a reason for this, which should become apparent when you start looking at the scripts.
To get a little insight into the build process, cd to ../matrix, and type
rm *.o make
Look at the options that are passed to the compiler. These are ultimately controlled by the variables that are set in ../kaldi.mk, which in turn is determined by ../configure. Also look at the linking options, passed in when it creates matrix-lib-test. You will get some idea what math libraries it is linking against (this is somewhat system dependent). For more information on how we make use of external matrix libraries, you can read External matrix libraries.
Change directory to one level up (to src/), and look at the "configure" file. If you are familiar with the "configure" files generated by automake, you will notice that it is not one of those. It is hand generated. Search within it for "makefiles/" and quickly scan all the places where that string occurs (e.g. type into the shell "less configure", type "/makefiles[enter]" and then type "n" to see later instances). You will see that it makes use of some files with the suffix .mk in the subdirectory "makefiles/". These are essentially "prototype" versions of kaldi.mk. Look at one of the prototypes, e.g. makefiles/cygwin.mk, to see the kinds of things they contain. For systems that are more predictable, it just concatenates the system specific makefile together with makefiles/kaldi.mk.common and writes it to kaldi.mk. For Linux, it has to do a little more sleuthing because there are so many distributions. Mostly this relates to finding where the math libraries are installed. If you are having problems with a build process, one solution is to try modifying kaldi.mk by hand. In order to do this you should probably understand how Kaldi makes use of external math libraries (see External matrix libraries).